Aviation Eye Examination (CASA )

Paul Fotkou is a CASA accredited eye examiner.

What Is involved?

1hour is set aside for the eye examination. The eye test compromises a full assessment of vision, spectacle refraction, binocular vision and co-ordination, peripheral vision and ocular health assessment.

Will any drops be used?

Dilating drops will be used. A dilated fundus examination involves a review of the Optic nerve and Macula function. The type of equipment used is an OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography) This the latest technology in detecting eye disease. Bring along sunglasses and plan not to drive for at least 2 hours.

What is needed?

Please bring photo ID (eg Drivers license) and ARN


Results will be automatically submitted electronically

Dry Eye Treatment

We offer dry eye treatment at ACO. As your optometrist

my expertise in examining your eyes for dry eye syndrome and treating them in the best way possible. I offer treatments for dry

eyes ranging from prescription eye drops to punctal plugs. I will examine your eyes to determine the best dry eye treatment for them.

Dry eyes or dry eye syndrome (DES) is an ongoing condition that treatments may be unable to cure. But the symptoms of dry eye including dryness, scratchiness and burning can

usually be successfully managed. Artificial tears, which are lubricating eye drops may alleviate the dry, scratching feeling and foreign body sensation of dry eye. We are lucky to

now have prescription eye drops. Some work on each layer of the tear film, some work on increasing production and some work on improving the quality of the tears. Check with me before buying any over the counter eye drops. Many over the counter eye drops have harsh preservatives or chemicals that can be toxic to the cornea.

To reduce the effects of sun, wind and dust on dry eyes,

wear sunglasses when outdoors. Wraparound styles offer the best protection.

Indoors, an air cleaner can filter out dust and other particles from the air, while a humidifier adds moisture to air that's too dry because of air conditioning or heating.


Macular Degeneration

 There is currently no cure for macular degeneration. Macular degeneration treatment options exist that can slow the progress of the disease or improve vision based on the type of macular

degeneration you are experiencing. To understand the risks and the limitations of all macular degeneration treatments, speak frankly with the optometrist.

Dry macular degeneration treatment actually begins with routine eye exams, especially after age 60. The goal here is to catch the development of ARMD early. If detected, you may be

prescribed a specific mix of high-dose zinc and antioxidants that have shown an ability to slow the progression of the disease.

Wet macular degeneration treatment can include a number of options; including laser surgery, light-activated dyes

that are injected into the circulatory system, or drugs injected

directly into the eye that inhibit the growth of abnormal blood vessels that cause the wet form of the disease.

With any macular degeneration treatment, there are no guarantees that the disease can be stopped, no promises that a treatment won’t need to be repeated, and a sobering reminder that

vision, once lost, is rarely restored.


LASIK Surgery

 I have extensive experience in the pre-operative evaluation and post-operative care of LASIK surgery in the Adelaide

area as well as other vision correction procedures. By

far, LASIK is currently the most popular vision-correcting or "refractive" surgery available.

But there are other options as well. I will help you find the ideal solution for your problem and partner with the best surgeon to perform your LASIK surgery procedure.

Introduction to LASIK

LASIK is the most commonly performed refractive surgery procedure. You may hear people calling it "LASIX," but the correct name is LASIK, which is short for "laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis."

Why is it so popular? LASIK has advantages over other vision correction procedures, including a relative lack of pain afterward and the fact that good vision usually is achieved by

the very next day.

During Lasik the surgeon folds the hinged flap back out of the way, then removes some corneal tissue underneath using an excimer laser. The excimer laser uses a cool ultraviolet

light beam to precisely remove ("ablate") very tiny bits of tissue from the cornea to reshape it. When the cornea is reshaped in the right way, it works better to focus light into the eye and onto the retina, providing clearer vision than before. The flap is then laid back in place, covering the area where the corneal tissue was removed.

Both nearsighted and farsighted people can benefit from the LASIK procedure. With nearsighted people, the goal is to flatten the too

-steep cornea; with farsighted people, a steeper cornea is desired. Excimer lasers also can correct astigmatism by smoothing an

irregular cornea into a more normal shape.

Many times I will recommend omega 3 Fatty Acids & Fish Oils which has been proven to help with Dry Eye Syndrome.

If medications are the cause of dry eyes, discontinuing the drug generally resolves the problem. But in this case, the benefits of the drug must be weighed against the side effect of dry eyes.

Sometimes switching to a different type of medication alleviates the dry eye symptoms while keeping the needed treatment. In any case, never switch or discontinue your medications without consulting with your doctor first. Treating any underlying eyelid disease, such as blepharitis, helps as well. This may call for antibiotic or steroid drops, plus frequent eyelid scrubs with an antibacterial shampoo. If you are considering LASIK, be aware that dry eyes may disqualify you for the surgery, at least until your dry eye condition is successfully treated. Dry eyes increase your risk for poor healing after LASIK, so most surgeons will want to treat the dry eyes first, to ensure a good LASIK outcome.



Cataracts is a disease of the eye that results in the clouding of the lens of the eyeball. Cataracts prevent clear images from appearing on the eye’s retina; causing mild, moderate, even severe blurred visit. Typically an eye disorder associated with aging (over half of the people in Australia over the age of 80 have either had a cataract or cataract surgery), cataracts generally occur later in life as the

lens structure within the human eye changes and gets older.

Cataract Surgery

Cataract surgery is the removal of the natural lens of the eye (also called "crystalline lens") that has developed an opacification, which is referred to as a cataract. Metabolic changes of the crystalline lens fibres over the time lead to the development of the cataract

and loss of transparency, causing impairment or loss of vision. During cataract surgery, a patient's cloudy natural lens is

removed and replaced with a synthetic lens to restore the lens's transparency.

Following surgical removal of the natural lens, an artificial intraocular lens implant is inserted (eye surgeons say that the lens is "implanted"). Cataract surgery is generally performed by an ophthalmologist (eye surgeon) in a surgical centre or hospital, using local anaesthesia (either topical, peribulbar, or retrobulbar), usually causing little or no discomfort to the patient. Well over 90% of

operations are successful in restoring useful vision, with a low complication rate. Day care, high volume, minimally invasive, small incision phacoemulsification with quick post-op recovery has become the standard of care in cataract surgery all over the world